Chili pepper (also chile pepper or chilli pepper) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The term in British English and in Australia, New Zealand, India, Malaysia and other Asian countries is just chilli without pepper. Green and yellow are just unripe fruits.
Chili peppers originated in the Americas. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used in both food and medicine.
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The "heat" of chili peppers was historically measured in Scoville heat units (SHU), which is the amount of chili extract added to sugar syrup before its heat becomes detectable to a panel of tasters.
Bell peppers rank at 0 SHU,
New Mexico green chilis at about 1,500 SHU,
jalapeños at 2,500–5,000 SHU
habaneros at 300,000 SHU.
Some like it hot!
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