Iceland also referred to as Republic of Iceland (Icelandic: Lýðveldið Ísland), is a European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.[5] It has a population of about 320,000 and a total area of 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi).[6] The capital and the largest city is Reykjavík,[7] with the surrounding areas in the southwestern region of the country being home to two-thirds of the national population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active. The interior mainly consists of a plateau characterised by sand fields, mountains and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle.

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