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Hwaseong Fortress was constructed by The King Jeongjo [The 22nd King of the Joseon dynasty] in between 1794 and 1796. It had a great influence on the development of Korean architecture, urban planning, and landscaping and related arts for many centuries. It is the epitome of this type of structure in the Far East and is a landmark in the history of military architecture. The massive walls of the fortress enclose an area that includes the foot of Mount Paldalsan. They follow the topography of the land, rather than taking up a regular or symmetrical form. The walls were originally 48 defensive features along the length of the walls - four gates, floodgates, observation towers, command posts, multiple-arrow launcher towers, firearms bastions, angle towers, secret gates, beacon towers, bastions and bunkers - and most of these survive intact. UNESCO designated this fortress as a World Cultural Heritage in 1997, which “catalogues, names, and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity.”

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