It is found in a wide range of forests, including rainforest and secondary forest. They usually have territories of about 30000 m² to 85000 m².
Red-rumped agoutis weigh about 3 to 6 kilograms (6.6 to 13 lb). They are about 19 to 25 inches (48 to 64 cm) long. In this species the females are larger than males but otherwise look similar. They are brownish with darker spots on the upper body. The fur becomes more orange as it goes past (going down) the middle area of the animal. The ears are somewhat square in shape. The front feet have 4 toes and the back have 3. They can be distinguished from other agoutis by their distinct coloring.
These animals have no distinct breeding season, and females generally have about 1 to 3 young. The gestation period is 104 to 120 days. On average, it takes 20 weeks for the young to be weaned. They live in pairs or family groups of the parents and little ones. They need large areas for food, breeding, and territory. It is hard to keep the animal in captivity for that reason. Most animals in the family Dasyproctidae mate once or twice, and this is presumed to be true for this species as well. This species lives 15-20 yrs in captivity.